HTTP/1.1 200 OK Cache-Control: no-cache, private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Date: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 01:58:01 GMT 香蕉十八禁

[X] CLOSEMAIN MENU

[X] CLOSEIN THIS SECTION

Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

完成所有的事,甚至更多

Show MoreHide

伦敦博蒙特·内森顾问公司(Beaumont Nathan)的联合创始人雨果·内森(Hugo Nathan)说:“新投资者对早期绘画大师的作品有兴趣,不过他们想要的是杜维恩(Duveen)卖给强盗大亨们的作品。他们想要名作。”他指的是英国艺术交易商约瑟夫·杜维恩(Joseph Duveen),他把很多伟大的艺术品带去了美国。
2. Lumberjack
Gongloff piles on the bad news about 2014: GDP 'grew at a 1.8% annualized pace in the first quarter ... revising down its earlier estimate of 2.4% growth ... The first quarter's dismal growth was at least better than the 0.4% GDP growth of the fourth quarter of 2012. But it was still far from healthy, and economists don't see it getting much stronger any time soon.' And that's real bad news for the markets going into 2014.

‘The Americans’ Set in the Reagan era, this FX series is nearly as deceptive as KGB agents posing as suburban American couple: In its second season, “The Americans” proved to be a drama about love, family, friendship and mistrust disguised as a Cold War thriller.
巴黎是前十名中唯一的欧元区国家,而且下降了3个名次,报告指出这可能是由于对欧元的信心下降。
Traders heading for the exits: 'Unsustainable trends can survive much longer than most people anticipate, but they do end when their 'time is up, at the culmination of their time cycles.' They analyzed more than 20 cycles: 'Nearly unanimously point to tectonic shifts in the months and years ahead.'

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

赵薇老公房被偷卖 房产证加密“然并卵”

Cross talk “Do Not Blame Me” (Cao Yunjin and Liu Yuntian)
The rest of the top 10 2016 highest-paid actresses are:
Also downstairs, there’s an octagonal den with a barrel-vaulted ceiling, walls of glass and a built-in bench seat. The room is wired for surround sound. The three bedrooms are upstairs; all have lake views.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

n. 蝴蝶,蝶状物,蝶泳
The US president-elect has pledged to abandon trade agreements which could have wide-reaching effects on American imports and exports of commodities if trade agreements are revised.
Last week, Lu was appointed director of the office for Beijing's Leading Group of Promoting Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Integration Development, a move to accelerate Beijing's moves to coordinate with Tianjin and Hebei province.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • On Her Majesty's Secret Service gets an honorable mention on our list of James Bond Theme songs.
  • 美采取玻纤酚醛蜂窝结构制作航天器防热壳
  • Jobs for workers with branding skills were also on the rise during the third quarter of 2016, most likely thanks to “small businesses’ need to create cohesive and consistent strategies for their companies online,” according to the report.
  • 市场持续低迷 家居业转型要“啃”精装房
  • 北京拟在集体土地建租赁型宿舍:人均不低于4平米
  • "You're part of the past, but now you're the future," Lana Del Rey sings on Lust for Life's opening track, "Love".
    as朝向,soci(同伴,社会)-成为同伴-联合

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 政府“暴力救市”LED照明行业IPO“捡漏”受益?, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

Show MoreHide

The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

欧司朗出售通用照明业务 哪家合作最强?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

二套房首付比降幅超预期 一线城市望量价齐升

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

Show MoreHide

How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 得益于均衡发展,广州和深圳在该榜单上分列前两位。而杭州则因其技术优势而排名第三。武汉则由于在发展和成本间的良好平衡排名第四,随后的南京则是由于文化和生活水平排名第五。
    立场:提倡“自觉资本主义”
  • 2015年,欧盟仅提起了12起反倾销案,较前一年减少了2起。
    “Right now the fitness tracker isn’t on that list,” he says, “but the next generation of wearables has the potential to pass that critical milestone.”
    骑行背带
    她说,在人民币升值的同时,与中国在旅游业方面构成竞争关系的国家(如日本)的货币贬值,这意味着到其他一些亚洲国家旅游的费用更加便宜,而来中国旅游更贵了。
    当城市规划部门明年初(2015年——译注)提出初步的建议方案时,布鲁克林的东纽约(East New York)地区将被列为试点。随后,重新区划进程就将在该处全市最穷社区之一内展开。而紧随其后的,将是针对皇后区的西法拉盛(Flushing)的提案。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 二手房需求透支将迎调整期 中介关店潮或会来临
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • “存量房”时代渐行渐近 你准备好了吗?

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

Show MoreHide

Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

此类洞见尤其引起诉讼出资人的兴趣,后者支持原告以换取一定比例的损害赔偿金,并在出钱之前试图评估纠纷的可能结局。但是这种技术可能要到2019年乃至更遥远的未来才能突破。
据透露,二月份哈迪德眯着眼睛试图模仿佛像,冒犯了许多人,在那之后她的签证申请就被驳回了。
Yes. With the US Federal Reserve likely to raise interest rates a few times in 2018, trading is likely to be choppy in emerging markets. Sometimes it may feel a bit like a rerun of the 2013 “taper tantrum”. However, average GDP growth will rise to 5 per cent, up from a forecast 4.7 per cent this year. This will mostly be because Russia and Brazil, which have stumbled, will bounce back.
立场:支持移民改革
D1t]!J^-6h=kwFS)I
今年的榜单包括三款涡轮增压柴油发动机,但这一点可能引来争议,尤其考虑到柴油在美国的普及程度低于欧洲;在欧洲,柴油引擎已经成为发动机话题的主角。这是第一次有超过两款柴油动力引擎跻身十大榜单,并且讽刺的是,其中这两款引擎均来自于美国国内汽车生产商,包括当前美国国内唯一一款全尺寸半吨皮卡Ram 1500所使用的引擎。
I wish you a happy New Year. All affection and best wishes to you and yours.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

Show MoreHide

Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

Show MoreHide

Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 1. Bottoms Up Beer System
  • 欧派酝酿大家居战略 上交所受理其上市申请
  • New Year should be a time of banked-up fines, the scent of flowers and wine, good talk, good memories and loyalties renewed. But if all else is lacking - love will do.新年是这样美好的时光:炉火熊熊,花儿芬芳,醇酒飘香,殷殷祝福,美好回忆,恩爱日新。即便没有一切,只要有爱便足矣。
    Xi'an Xianyang International Airport outshone all other airports in China, with a punctuality rate of 82.3%.
  • 世联行陈劲松:房产电商“打劫”模式不可持续
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • The mattress comes with sensors inside the bed that can detect pressure and send messages to the app, which spares no details. The app not only detects movement on the bed, but also records the intensity and speed at which people are getting it on.
    随着北京方面采取的资本管制对海外收购交易起到抑制作用,1月份中国企业对海外房地产业的投资额比上年同期下降了84%。
  • 新年是这样美好的时光:炉火熊熊,花儿芬芳,醇酒飘香,殷殷祝福,美好回忆,
    Staff numbers at insurance agencies also rose by 936,200 to a total of more than 5.6m people.
  • 在3月2号,北韩政府网站我们民族之间警告北韩将对任何气球投放展开"炮弹和导弹的攻击,而不只是几下枪击"。
    事实是,韩力不是第一个发明电子烟的人。早在1963年,赫尔伯特·吉尔伯特就制造出了世界上第一个可以用来吸入香烟味儿空气的装置。他最初的发明装置,不用燃烧,也不含尼古丁。他后来设计出了一个用电池去加热的模型,他也用了不同味道的水去制造蒸气。他把他的电子烟模型展示给不同的化工、制药以及烟草公司,但是他们都没有理会他的模型。
  • ['s?ul]
    舒尔茨在星巴克网站上发表了一封信,信中写道:“据我所知,一些公司领导人也对我们保持相对沉默以及我们代表民众要求政府首脑采取行动所产生的影响感到担心。”
    [k?'p?siti]
  • 成长的故事:现代的巴黎郊区与20世纪70年代的旧金山,这两部影片以残酷的城市和无尽的热情,把成长为女人的可怕惊险之路变得戏剧化。
    通常在垃圾桶里东西是没有价值的,不需要任何检查,但Qube试图用“世界上第一个智能垃圾桶”来改变这一现状。Qube声称可以帮助你监控你的垃圾,帮助你利用创新技术回收垃圾。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 天猫向线下卖场妥协:紧急解除与家装O2O合作 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

9月百城住宅均价环比同比双涨 深圳涨28.5%居首

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

天津自贸区挂牌三周年 打造制度创新“高地”

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

百度引爆智能家居潮 雷军马化腾将交锋

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

丹东再发声:毫不动摇地坚持“房子是用来住的 不是用来炒的”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • Mr. Nathan was among the few dealers actively bidding at the evening sales. Buying on behalf of a client, he paid 506,500, or twice the estimate, at Christie’s for Charles-Antoine Coypel’s 1737 painting, “The Destruction of the Palace of Armida.”
  • A series of explosions on Aug. 12 that originated in a warehouse illegally storing hazardous chemicals in the port city of Tianjin killed 173 people, injured hundreds and left behind post-apocalyptic scenes of destruction. The blasts raised serious questions about the lax enforcement of safety regulations during China's rapid industrialization.
  • 北京严禁销售企业自持商品住房 房企面临资金压力

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • A vibrant ETF market would depend on the evolution of fee-based distribution networks. Mark Talbot, managing director of Asia-Pacific at Fidelity International, says the distribution infrastructure is holding back retail demand.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • “狗屎。都在说谎,都是权宜之计,他们不过是想让自己好受些,我知道这些人都是胆小鬼,只要表面上看起来能凑合,对他们来说这就够了。”
    9、邦德经历风险无数却总能死里逃生。当然,人物本身是虚构的。有意思的是,研究证明,肌肉男更皮实。实际上,肌肉不发达对男性来说,可能很要命。(可能就是发达的肌肉让他得以活命的吧,我怀疑他会死于心脏病或前列腺癌)。
    《弗鲁特维尔车站》(Fruitvale Station)是另一部出色的故事片处女作,由瑞安?库格勒(Ryan Coogler)执导。这部影片的主题是赤手空拳的22岁黑人奥斯卡?格兰特(Oscar Grant)在加州奥克兰与一名白人交警发生冲突而遭到误杀,这本来可以成就一部纪录片。库格勒有更好的想法,将这个真实事件加以戏剧化改编,并在很大程度上进行了虚构,讲述了奥斯卡死亡前一天的生活。饰演这个角色的是迈克尔?乔丹(Michael Jordan),他的表演能让你心碎,也能令人欢乐不已,有时是两者兼具。
  • 一些银行仍然给予股东高额回报。中国招商银行十分“大方”,其分红占净利润的30.16%。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 达洛伊西奥的父母从澳大利亚搬到英国,他的父亲卢(Lou)曾在英国石油(BP)和摩根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)工作,而母亲戴安娜(Diana)是一位企业律师,同时也是儿子的合同代表。他们向来都知道达洛伊西奥是一个非常好学的孩子。但戴安娜说因为他是长子,他们本以为他不会做出什么超出寻常的事情来(达洛伊西奥有一个14岁的弟弟)。他们强调,尽管达洛伊西奥成就非凡,尽管他聊天时会聊起马尔科夫模型(Markov models)和随机过程(stochastic processes),他仍只是一个再普通不过的孩子。戴安娜说,他周末仍要出去玩,仍要去参加派对。他还有个女朋友。17岁孩子会做的事情,他都会做。
  • 国内空气、水质质量不佳 进口建材家居产品“水土不服”
  • China is spending heavily on renewable and nuclear energy as it tries to slow the growth of coal, but despite those efforts it has become by far the largest emitter of greenhouse gases. Its emissions of 10 billion tons a year of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacturing are almost twice those of the United States, though emissions per person are still far higher in the United States.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 天津2018年计划建成2万套棚户区改造安置房
  • Household substance abuse
  • 衣柜电商遇尴尬 网销实践困难重重
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

中国房价下一个大跌信号已现 人口红利见顶

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 房地产市场回暖 8月全国营业税逆势两位数增长
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 标准是智能家居普及的最大阻碍
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

平均工作经验:12个月

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

巴蒂说道:“纵观亚洲高校前三百名榜单,我们可以看到,现如今,动态、多样化且颇具竞争力的高等教育园区正在亚洲地区逐渐形成,中国则是这个发展过程中极其重要的一部分。”
1.You Aren't Learning Anything New
One explanation could be that significantly more men than women work in the industry’s best-paying fields. A third of men work in private equity orventure capital, investment banking or mergers and acquisitions, andhedge funds compared with only 19 per cent of women.
Games are serious business in China. The country's online game market will reach 41 billion yuan by 2012 ($6 billion), accounting for half the global market, according to newly released data from Cnzz.com Inc., a Beijing-based third-party data analysis firm (related report in Chinese here).
谎言10:我以为我早就把邮件发出去了。我真的发过了。说谎原因:如果告诉你我觉得这事不重要,我把这事忘了,就会伤害到我俩的关系了。
在开放课程排行榜中,基于对参加课程高管的调查,瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院在最重要的10项指标上得分特别高。该校在3项指标上排第一,在其他7项指标上都排前五。
Despite the reported success of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's official visit to Canada back in September, timekeeping needs to be looked at for future trips.
Although foreign trade accounts for a greater share of the economy than ever, the United States is still more insulated than virtually every major competitor in Europe and Asia. Such everyday purchases as haircuts, dry cleaning, financial advice and eating out are virtually immune from foreign competition.
ScreamRide
10. Computer systems analyst

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

各地楼市分化冷热不均:要增加大城市土地供给

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Hope all your New Year dreams come true!愿你所有的新年想都成真!
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • It's quite an odd question, because Ireally wanted to start writing when I read lots of Stephen King stories. Hisstories were quite astonishing and interesting.
  • 专家:房市从北上广深的牛市将变成三四线的牛市
  • 2010 U.S. unemployment rate (average): 10.2%
  • 中国经济平稳运行的基础依然坚实
  • “An employee sent his boss a text message to say he was leaving.”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 家居市场洗牌进一步加速 中小企业博弈加剧
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • A Beautiful China where the sky is blue, the land is green, and the water runs clear
  • lace

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

国企董事长7000万买77套房全闲置 曾获评中国好人

View All Footnotes